Plymouth Armada Heroes

[The Hawkins Family 79]


Sir Richard Hawkins, "The Complete Seaman"

ADMIRAL SIR RICHARD HAWKINS was the only child of Sir John Hawkins, the great admiral. His mother was Sir John's first wife, Katherine, daughter of Benjamin Gonson, Treasurer of the Navy frorn 1549 to 1573.

Richard Hawkins was born at Plymouth about 1560. From a boy he became his father's constant companion, and was brought up to a sea-life, under great advantages, with his father and uncle, both renowned seamen, and then owning thirty sail of good ships.

In 1582 he made his first long voyage to the West Indies, with his uncle, William Hawkins, in which he showed the boldness and sagacity of a good officer. The following incident during the voyage is given by Sir Richard Hawkins in his Observations:

"In the year 1582 in a voyage under the charge of my uncle Wm Hawkins of Plymouth Esquire: in the Indies, at the Western end of the Island of San Juan de Porto Rico: one of the ships called the bark Bonner, being somewhat leake, the captain complained that she was not able to endure to England; whereupon a counsel was called and his reasons heard and allowed." It was determined to take everything out of the ship, and to burn or sink her, to which Richard Hawkins said nothing, ' it being my part to learn rather than to advise "*; but seeing the fatal sentence given, and suspecting the captain of making the matter worse than it was, so as to get into another ship which sailed better, he dissuaded his uncle privately ; but not prevailing, he went further, and offered to take the ship home himself, "leaving the Vice-admiral which I had under my charge and to make her Vice-admiral." The captain, hearing this, felt his reputation at stake, and said he would not

*From the original edition of Sir Richard Hawkins's Observations, 1622.


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leave his ship; and she returned safe to England, and made many a good voyage for nine years after. Thus he saved the vessel from destruction, and was esteemed for his wisdom; and from that time he was constantly employed at sea.

These Observations of Sir Richard were dedicated to Prince, afterwards King, Charles, in the following form:

To the

most illustrious and most excellent


Duke of Cornewall, Earle of Chester, etc.

AMONGST other neglects prejudicial to this state, I have observed, that many the worthy and heroyque acts of our nation, have been buried and forgotten: the actors themselves being desirous to shunne emulation in publishing them, and those which overlived them, fearefull to adde, or to diminish from the actors worth, judgement, and valour, have forborne to write them; by which succeeding ages have been deprived of the fruits which might have been gathered out of their experience, had they beene committed to record. To avoid this neglect, and for the good of my country, I have thought it my duty to publish the observations of my South Sea voyage; and for that unto your highnesse, your heires, and successors, it is most likely to be advantagious (having brought on me nothing but losse and misery), I am bold to use your name, a protection unto it, and to offer it with all humblenes and duty to your highnesse approbation, which if it purchase, I have attained my desire, which shall ever ayme to performe dutie.

Your Highnesse humble

And devoted Servant



In 1585 Richard Hawkins sailed, with Drake and Frobisher, in command of the Duck. The fleet consisted of twenty-five ships, with 2300 soldiers and sailors, of whom 750 died, chiefly of disease, during the voyage. They took San lago, San Domingo, Carthagena, and San Augustine in Florida.

He was admitted to the freedom of Plymouth in 1589-90 as "Ricus Hawkins genrosus, when "he contributed towards the fund raised to reimburse Drake for bringing in the water." The previous year he provided the Corporation with a silver cup, value £12, for presentation to Sir Walter Ralegh, Lord Warden of the Stannaries, also "four demi culverins and three sakers" for the defence of the town.

Richard Hawkins comrnanded the Swallow - the ship that Howard offered

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to sail to Rio Janeiro in the wildest storm that could blow - against the Armada, and he is mentioned as greatly distinguishing himself during the many engagements which ended in the total destruction of that great fleet. TheSwallow received more damage than any of the Queen's ships during the fight, in which she suffered severely.*

In 1590 Sir John Hawkins obtained the grant of a commission for his son Richard, to attempt, with a ship, bark, and pinnace, an expedition against Philip II. of Spain. This commission assigned to Richard Hawkins and his patrons whatever they should take; reserving one-fifth of the treasure, jewels, and pearls, to the Queen. The voyage was intended to be made by way of the Straits of Magellan and the South Sea, the object being to discover and survey unknown lands, and to report upon their inhabitants, governments, and produce; returning by way of Japan, China, and the East Indies.

"For this purpose," says Sir Richard Hawkins, " in the end of 1558, returning from the journey against the Spanish Armado, I caused a ship to be builded in the river of Thames, betwixt 300 and 400 tons, which was finished in that perfection as could be required; for she was pleasing to the eye, profitable for stowage, good of sail, and well conditioned.

"The day of her launching being appointed, the Lady Hawkins (my step-mother) named her the Repentance, and although many times I expostulated with her, to declare the reason for giving her that uncouth name, I could never have any satisfaction, than that repentance was the safest ship we could sail in to purchase the haven of Heaven. The Repentance being put in perfection, and riding at Detford, the queen's majesty passing by her, to her palace at Greenwich, commanded her bargemen to row round about her, and viewing her from post to stem, disliked nothing but her name, and said she would christen her anew, and that henceforth

she should be called the Dainty; which name she brooked well, having taken (for her Majesty) a great Byscen, of 500 tons, under the conduct of Sir Martin Furbisher; a caracke bound for the East Indies, under my father's charge, and the principal cause of taking the great caracke, the Madre de Dios, brought to Dartmouth by Sir John Borrough, and the Earl of Cumberland's ships, anno 1592, with others of moment in other voyages. To us she never brought but loss, trouble, and care. Therefore my father resolved to sell her, though with some loss, which he imparted with me and for that I had ever a particular love unto her, and a desire she should continue ours, I offered to ease him of the charge and care of her, and to take her with all her furniture

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at the price he had before taken her of me; with resolution to put in execution the voyage for which she was first builded; although it lay six months and more in suspense, partly upon the pretended voyage to Nombre de Dios and Panama, which then was fresh a foot; and partly upon the caracke at Dartmouth, in which I was employed as a commissioner; but this business

being ended, and the other pretence waxing cold, the 1st March I resolved and began to go forward with the journey, so often talked of; and so much desired.

"And having made an estimate of the charge of victuals, munition, and necessaries for the said ship : consorting another [vessel] of 100 tons, which I waited for daily from the Straits of Gibraltar, with a pinnace of 60 tons, all mine own: and for a competent number of men for them, and dispatched order to my servant at Plymouth, to put in a readiness my pinnace. And with

the diligence I used, and my father's furtherance, at the end of one month I was ready to set sail for Plymouth, to join with the rest of my ships and provisions. But the expecting of the coming of the Lord High Admiral, Sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary to her majesty, and Sir Walter Rawley, with others, to honour my ship and me with their presence and farewell, detained me some days, and the rain and intemperate weather deprived me of the favour, which I was in hope to have received at their hands.

"Having taken my unhappy last leave of my father Sir John Hawkins, I tooke my barge, and rowed down the river, and coming to Barking, we might see my ship at an anchor in the midst of the channel, where ships are not wontto moor themselves. And coming aboard her, one and another began to recount the peril they had past of loss of ship and goods; f6r the wind being at N.W. when they set sail, and vered out southerly, it forced them for the doubling of a point to bring their tack aboard; and luffing up, the wind freshing suddenly the ship began to make a little heel; and for that she was very deep loaden, and her ports open, the water began to enter in at them, which nobody having regard unto, thinking themselves safe in the river; at length when it was seen and the sheet flown, she could hardly be brought upright. But with the diligence of the company she was freed of that danger."

Richard Hawkins now set sail, and arrived at Plymouth on the 26th April. The vessel he expected from Gibraltar not arriving, he resolved to take a smaller ship of his own instead, called the Hawke, only for a victualler, meaning to take out the men and victuals, and to cast her off either on the coast of Brazil or in the Straits of Magellan.

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Towards the end of May all was in readiness to depart; but a westerly gale came on, during which the Dainty lost her mainmast, which also prevented Hugh Cornish, the master, bringing her into the Cattewater.

"Coming to my house to shift me " (wet to the skin, says Sir Richard), "I had not well changed my clothes when a servant of mine enters almost out of breath with news, that the pinnace was beating upon the rocks, which though I knew to be remediless, I put myself in place where I might see her, and in a little time after she sunk downright. These losses and mischances troubled and grieved, but nothing daunted me; Si fortuna me tormenta; Esperanca me contenta: of hard beginnings, many times come prosperous and happy events. And although a well willing friend wisely foretold me them to be presages of future bad success, and so disuaded me what lay in him with effectual reasons, yet the hazard of my credit, and danger of disreputation, to take in hand that which I should not prosecute, was more powerful to cause me to go forwards, than his grave good counsel to make me desist. And so the storm ceasing, I began to get in the Dainty, to mast her anew, and to recover the Fancy my pinnace, which with the help and furtherance of my wife's father, who supplied all my wants, together with my credit (which I thank God was unspotted), in ten days put all in his former state, or better. And so once again, began to take my leave of my friends, and of my dearest friend, my second self, whose unfeigned tears had wrought me into irres0lution,and sent some other in my room: so remembering that many had their eyes set upon me, I shut the door to all impediments, and mine ear to all contrary counsel, and gave place to voluntary banishment from all that I loved and esteemed in this life, with hope thereby better to serve my God, my prince and country, than to increase my talent any way.

I set sail the 12th June, 1593, in the afternoon; and all put jn order, I looft near the shore to give my farewell to all the inhabitants of the towne, whereof the most part were gathered together upon the Hoe, to show their grateful correspondency to the love and zeal which I, my father, and predecessors have ever borne to that place as to our natural and mother town. And first with my noise of trumpets, after with my waytes and other music, and lastly with the artillery of my ships, I made the best signification I could of a kind farewell. This they answered with the waytes of the towne, and the ordinance on the shore, and with shouting of voices; which, with the fair evening and silence of the night, were heard a great distance off"

They touched at Madeira, the Canary Isles, and Cape de Verdes; and approaching the equinoctial line the men "began to fall sick of a disease

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which seamen are wont to call the scurvy," of which several of them died, which together with contrary winds made them seek the shore, and towards the end of October they sighted land-the port of Victoria on the coast of Brazil. Richard Hawkins now sent a letter to the Governor, saying that he was bound for the East Indies to traffic, and had been forced into port by contrary winds, and that if he were willing they would exchange commodities. The captain of the Dainty was sent with the letter; but he not returning, Hawkins entered the harbour, when the captain returned. They anchored "right against the village," sending a boat for the Governor's answer, who replied that he was sorry that he could not agree to so reasonable a request on account of the war between Spain and England, having received express orders from his King not to suffer any trade with the English, at the same time requiring them to depart within three days, which he gave them on account of their courtesy.

"With this answer we resolved to depart; but the wind suffered us not all that night, nor the next day. In which time I lived in great perplexity, for that I knew our own weakness and what they might doe unto us if that they had known so much. For any man that putteth himself into the enemies port, had need of Argus eyes, and the wind in a bagge, especially when the enemie is strong, and the tydes of any force. . . . For with either ebb or flood those who are on the shore may thrust upon him their inventions of fire, and with swimming or other devices may cut his cables. .

"In S. John de UlIa, in Mexico, when the Spaniards dishonoured their nation with that foul act of perjury and breach of faith given to my father, Sir John Hawkins (notorious to the whole world), the Spaniards fired two great ships with intention to burn my father's admiral, which he prevented by towing them with his boats another way.

The next night the wind changing they set sail, and having refreshed themselves at the island of Santa Anna, the men began to recover from their sickness; but it having lessened their number, it was determined to take out the victuals of the Hawke and to burn her. Here after a short chase they succeeded in taking a prize;. but she had nothing of value in her, as she had been on the great shoals of Abrolhos, and obliged to throw everything overboard. Directing their course for the Straits of Magellan, they took a Portuguese ship of 100 tons bound for Angola. They took out of this prize a quantity of meal and some sugar, and gave the crew their ship and their liberty, and after disarming them all, allowed them to depart. Then continuing on their voyage in the height of the Plate river,

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some fifty leagues off the coast they were overtaken by a storm which lasted two days.

"In the first day," says Sir Richard, "about the going down of the sun, Robert Thariton, master of the Fancy, bare up before the wind without giving us any token or sign that she was in distress. We seeing her to so continue her course bare up after her, and the night coming on we

carried our light; but she never answered us, for they kept their course directly for England, which was the overthrow of the voyage. As well for that we had no pinnace to go before us to discover any danger, to seek out roads and anchoring, to help our watering and refreshing, as also for the victuals, necessaries, and men which they carried away with them, which though they were not many, yet with their help in our fight we had taken the vice-admiral the first time she boarded with us, as shall be hereafter manifested. For once we cleared her deck, and had we been able to have spared but a dozen men, doubtless we had done with her what we would,

for she had no close-fights (barricades). Moreover, if she had been with me I had not been discovered upon the coast of Peru. But I was worthy to be deceived that trusted my ship in the hands of an hypocrite, and a man which had left his general before in like occasion and in the self-same place; for being with Master Thomas Candish, master of a small ship in the voyage wherein he died, this captain being aboard the admiral, in the night forsook his fleet, his general, and captain, and returned home."

Richard Hawkins and his men at the time believed that the Fancy had been lost during the storm, "for we never suspected that anything could make them forsake us; so we much lamented them." However, Robert Tharlton sailed for England, "making spoil of the prize he took in the way homewards, as also of that which was in the ship, putting it into a port fit for his purpose.

The 2nd February, 1594, they sighted land.* "All this coast, so far as we discovered, lyeth next of any thing E. by N. and W. by S."

"The land, for that it was discovered in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, my sovereign lady and mistress, and a maiden Queen, and at my cost and adventure, in a perpetual memory of her chastity and remembrance of my endeavours I gave it the name of Hawkins' maiden-land."

With a fair wind they directed their course for the Straits, passed Elizabeth Island, and in Blanches Bay they took in provisions and repaired the ship. After which, continuing their course "some four leagues to the

* The Falkland Islands

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westwards of Cape Froward, we found a goodly bay, which we named English Bay, where anchored we presently went ashore."

Soon after this the Dainty struck on a rock, but was got off after much labour, throwing into the sea what came to hand to lighten her, which proved fruitless until "that the flood came, and then we carried her off with great joy and comfort, when finding the current favourable with us, we stood over to English Bay, and fetching it, anchored there, having been some three hours upon the rock." Returning to Blanches Bay cold weather set in, with bitter winds, rain, and sleet, which made some of the men desire to return to Brazil; but no attention was paid to them, and

Hawkins employed their spare time in gathering fruit and the bark of a tree called winter's bark, also in collecting pearls out of mussels.

Setting sail they cleared Cape Desire, and on the 19th April anchored under the island of Mocha.

Coasting Chili, in the port of Valparaiso they seized four ships laden with provisions and timber. The owners wished to redeem their ships at a reasonable price, which was agreed to, Sir Richard reserving the largest to give his men satisfaction. They also seized another vessel, in which they found some quantity of gold; and kept her pilot and part owner, Alonzo Perezbueno, to pilot them along the coast, till out of pity - he having a wife and children - he was set ashore betwixt Santa and Truxilla, Hawkins also gave them the ship. During the ransom of the ships, for about a week Hawkins and Hugh Cornish, the master, took little rest on account of the weakness of their numbers, having but seventy men and boys with five ships to guard, everyone moored separately, and fearing treachery. The Governor of Chili was there, and confessed afterwards to Hawkins that he lay in ambush with three hundred horse and foot to see if at any time they landed or neglected their watch.

From Valparaiso they sailed to Coquimbo, and off Arica took a small prize, and sighted and chased a large vessel, but as she sailed fast were unable to take her. Having examined their prizes, and finding nothing but fish in them, Hawkins returned the larger ship to the Spaniards,

keeping the smaller one to make her their pinnace. But near Quilca this ship which they had brought from Valparaiso having sprung a leak they agreed to fire her, which was done accordingly; and continuing their course along the coast they anchored abreast of Chilca.

By sea and land the people of Chili had now given advice to De Mendoco, Marquis of Canete, Viceroy of Peru, resident in Lima, of the

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English being on the coast. He at once put six ships in warlike order with nearly 2000 men, and despatched them to seek and fight with Richard Hawkins, under the conduct of his wife's brother, De Castro, who departing from Callao turned to windward in sight of shore, whence they had daily intelligence of where the Dainty had last been discovered.

The day after Hawkins had sailed from Chilca they sighted each other near Canete, he being some two leagues to windward of the Spanish squadron, with little or no wind. The Dainty was now put in the best order possible to fight and to defend herself. "About 9 o'clock," Sir Richard

tells us, "the breeze began to blow, and we to stand off to sea, the Spaniards cheek by jole with us, ever getting to the windwards. The wind freshening, caused a chopping sea, which snapped the mainmast of the admiral of the Spaniards asunder, and so began to lay astern, and with him two other ships. The vice-admiral split her main-sail, being come within shot of us, and the rear-admiral cracked her main-yard in the midst, being ahead of us; and one of the armado, which was to windward, durst not assault us. After much debating it was concluded that we [the English ship] should bear up before the wind, and seek to escape; and at break of day we were

clear of all our enemies, and so shaped our course along the coast, for the Bay of Atacames, there to trim our pinnace, receive wood and water, and so depart upon our voyage with all possible speed." The Spaniards returned to Lima, and going ashore were "so mocked and scorned by the women, as scarce anyone by day would show his face. This wrought such effects in the hearts of the disgraced, as they vowed either to recover their reputation lost, or to follow us to England; and so with expedition the Viceroy commanded two ships and one pinnace to be put in order; and they were again despatched, and ranged the coasts in search of us." The English, who in sight of Cerro Mongon had taken and fired a ship laden with provisions, after setting the company ashore, proceeded to the Solomon Isles, and so continued on the voyage. Sighting a ship, which the captain and company wished to chase, Hawkins ordered the pinnace to do so, in which she was unsuccessful, and returned with the loss of her mainmast. So they put into the Bay of San Mateo to repair damages, resolving next morning

to set sail, and to leave the coasts of Peru and Quito.

The next day, however, while weighing anchor, the Spanish squadron of eight ships, manned by 1300 men, commanded by Don Beltran de Castro, was descried coming round the Cape. Hawkins with great difficulty dissuaded his men from attacking the Spaniards before the Dainty, manned by only 75 men,

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was prepared to fight, but "to give them better satisfaction, I condescended that our captain, with a competent number of men, should with our pinnace go to discover them. In all these divisions and opinions, our Master Hugh Cornish, who was a most sufficient man for government and valour, and well saw the errors of the multitude, used his office as became him; and so did all those of best understanding.

"In short space our pinnace discovered what they were and casting about to return unto us, the vice-admiral began with her chace to salute her, and so continued chasing and gunning at her. My company seeing this, now began to change humour; and I then to encourage and persuade them to perform their promises and vaunts of valour. And that we might have sea-room to fight, we presently weighed anchor, and stood off to sea with all our sails, in hope to get the weather gage of our enemies. But the wind scanting with us and larging with them, we were forced to leeward. And the Admiral came upon us: which being within musket shot, we hailed with our trumpets, our waytes, and after with our artillery; which they answered with artillery two for one. For they had double the ordinance we had, and almost ten men for one." In spite of overwhelming numbers this "worthy son of a worthy sire" fought a most gallant action for three days and nights. "Immediately they came shoring aboard of us, upon our lee quarter, contrary to our expectations, and the custom of men of war. And doubtless, had our gunner been the man he was reputed to be, she had received great hurt by that manner of boarding. But contrary to all expectation, our stern pieces were unprimed, and so were all those which we had to leeward, save half one in the quarter, which discharged, wrought that effect in our enemies, as that they had five or six foot water in hold, before they suspected it.

"Hereby all men are to take warning by me, not to trust any man in such extremities, when he himself may see it done. This was my oversight, this my overthrow. For my part, I with the rest of my officers, occupied ourselves in clearing our decks, lacing our nettings, making of bulwarks, arming our tops, fitting our wast-cloaths, tallowing our pikes, slinging yards, doubling sheets and tacks, placing and ordering our people, and procuring that they should be well fitted and provided of all things; leaving the artillery, to the gunners dispose and order, with the rest of his mates; which, as I said was part of our perdition. And coming now to put in execution the sinking of the ship, as he promised, he seemed a man without life or soul. So the admiral

coming close to us, I myself; and the master of our ship, were forced to play the gunners. The instruments of fire wherein he made me to spend immensely,

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before our going to sea, now appeared not-some of our company had him in suspicion to be more friend to the Spaniards than to us; for that he had served some years in the Tercera as gunner, and that he did all this on purpose. Few of our pieces were clear, when we came to use them, and some had the shot first put in, and after the powder. Besides after our surrender, it was laid to his charge, that he should say, he had a brother that served the king in the Peru,

and that he thought he was in the armado; and how he would not for all the world that he should be slain. Whether this was true or no, I know not, but I am sure all in general gave him an ill report.

"The entertainment we gave unto our enemies, being otherwise than was expected, they fell off and urged ahead, having brdken in pieces all our gallery; and presently they cast about upon us, and being able to keep us company, with their fighting sails, lay a weather of us, ordinarily within musket shot; playing continually with them and their great artillery; which we endured and answered as we could.

"Our pinnace engaged herself so far, as that before she could come unto us, the vice-admiral had like to cut her off; and coming to lay us aboard, and to enter her men, the vice-admiral boarded with her: so that some of our company entered our ship over her bow-sprit, as they themselves reported. We were not a little comforted with the sight of our people in safety within our ship; for in all we were but 75 men and boys, and our enemies 1300, little more or less, and those the choice of Peru."

In the chief of the Spanish ships was an English gunner, who, to gain grace with his employers and preferment, offered to sink the Dainty with the first shot he made. This man, as the Spaniards afterwards related, while traversing a piece in the bow to make his shot, before he could fire, had his head carried away with the first or second shot from the English, which also killed two or three other men by his side.

The fight continued so hot on both sides, that the artillery and muskets never ceased playing.

"The Spaniards towards evening determined for the third time to lay us aboard. Their plan was that the admiral should bring himself upon our weather bow, and so fall aboard of us, upon our broadside: and that the vice-admiral should lay his admiral aboard upon his weather quarter, and so enter his men into her; that from her they might enter us.

"The captain of the vice-admiral being more hardy than considerate, to get the price and chief honour, waited not the time to put in execution the direction given, but came aboard to windwards upon our broadside. For

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although she was long . . . . what with our muskets, and fireworks we cleared her decks in a moment, so that scarce any person appeared. And doubtless if we had entered but a dozen men, we might have taken her; but our men being few, and the principal of them slain or hurt, we durst not adventure the separation of those which remained: and so held that for the best and soundest resolution, to keep our forces together in defence of our own.

"The vice-admiral (who had lost 36 men) in distress called to his admiral for succour; who laid him aboard, and entered 100 men, and so cleared themselves of us.- And the admiral also received some loss, which wrought in them a new resolution, only with their artillery to batter us; and so with time to force us to surrender or to sink us; and placing themselves within a musket shot of our weather quarter, and sometimes on our broadside, lay continually beating upon us without intermission.

In others boardings and skirmishes, divers of our men were slain, and many hurt, and myself amongst them received six wounds: one of them in the neck, very perilous;. another through the arm, perishing the bone, and cutting the sinews close by the armpit; the rest not so dangerous. The master of our ship had one of his eyes, his nose, and half his face shot away. Master Henry Courton was slain. On these two I relied for the prosecution of our voyage, if God, by sickness, or otherwise, should take me away.

"The Spaniards with their great ordnance lay continually playing upon us, now and then parleyed and invited us to surrender 'a buena querra.' The captain of our ship now came to me, and began to relate how many were hurt and slain, and scarce any men appeared to oppose themselves for defence, if the enemy should board with us again; and how the admiral offered us life and liberty, and to send us into our own country-saying that if I thought so meet, he and the rest were of opinion that we should put out a flag of truce, and make some good composition. The great loss of blood had weakened me much. The torment of my wounds newly received, made me faint, and I laboured for life, within short space expecting I should give up the ghost. But this parley pierced through my heart, words failed me, yet grief and rage ministered force, and caused me to break forth-into this reprehension following.

"'Whence is this madness? Is the cause you fight for unjust? Will you exchange your liberty for thraldom? Is not an honourable death to be preferred before a miserable and slavish life? Hold they not this maxim: that nulla fides est servauda curn hereticis.' Have you forgotten their faith violated with my father, in S. Juan de Uba, the conditions and capitulations being firmed by the viceroy and twelve hostages, all principal personages, given for

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the more security of either party to the other? Can you forget their promise broken with John Vibao and company in Florida, having conditioned to give them shipping and victuals, to carry them into their country; immediately after they had delivered their weapons and arms, had they not their throats cut? How they dealt with John Oxenham and his company, in this sea, yielded upon composition; and how after a long imprisonment and many miseries, being carried from Panama to Lima, and there hanged with all his company, as pirates, by the justice? If these motives be not sufficient, then I present before your eyes your wives and children, your noble and sweet country, your gracious sovereign; all of which account yourselves for ever deprived, if this proposition should be put in execution. And you captain, make proof of your constancy and valour.'

"Whereunto he made answer. 'My good general, what I have done, hath not proceeded from faintness of heart, for besides our reputation I know the Spaniard too well, and the manner of his proceedings in discharge of promises: but only to give satisfaction to the rest of the company. And here I vow to fight it out, till life or limbs fail me.' I replied: 'This is that beseemeth you; and this will gain you, with God and man, a just reward.'"

Richard Hawkins also exhorted the men, as true Englishmen, to sell their lives dearly, that Spain may ever record it with sadness and grief; they answering that they would continue in their duty and obedience to the last breath. In this spirit the fight was continued all that night, the following day and night, and the third day; the enemy never leaving, and continually beating upon them with his great and small shot, except at daybreak, to breathe; and to repair what was amiss, and also to consult what they should do. During which time too the English repaired, and set things in order for the day, otherwise the ship must have sunk, having many shot under water, and the pumps shot to pieces. Not any man of either part took rest or sleep, and little sustenance besides bread and wine.

"In the second day's fight, the vice-admiral coming upon our quarter William Blanch made a shot at her which carried away her mainmast, and was succoured by the admiral. All the second, and the third day our captain and company sustained the fight, notwithstanding the disadvantage wherewith they fought; the enemy being ever to windward, their shot much damnifying us, and ours little hurting them.

"The third day, the 22nd of June 1594, our sails torn, our masts all perished, our pumps rent and shot to pieces, and our ship with fourteen shot under water, and seven or eight foot of water in hold; many of our men slain,

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with most of them that remained sore hurt; the enemy still offering us life and liberty; all were of opinion that our best course was to surrender ourselves before our ship sunk; and sent Thomas Saunders, a servant of mine, to signify unto me the state of our ship. So I also gave my consent, that the captain might capitulate, and called unto one Juan Gomes, our prisoner, to go to Don Beltran de Castro from me, to tell him that if he would give us his word and oath, with some pledge for confirmation, to receive us a buena querra, and to give us our lives, and liberty to return to our own country, we would surrender; otherwise that we would die fighting.

"The Spanish Admiral made answer that he received us a buena querra, and swore by God Almighty, to send us as speedily as he could into our own country. In confirmation whereof; he took off his glove, and sent it to me as a pledge. With this message Juan Gomes returned, and the Spaniards entered and took possession of our ship, crying, 'Buena querra, buena guerra / oy por maniana por ti.'"

Richard Hawkins was received with the greatest courtesy, "even with tears in his eyes," by Don Beltran, who accommodated him in his own cabin, where he "sought to cure and comfort me the best he could; and truly as I found by trial a man worthy of any charge."

"While the ships were together, the mainmast of the Dainty fell by the board, which the people, seeking for spoils and pillage neglected, and she grew so deep with water that she hardly escaped sinking, but after much labour they succeeded in saving her." All the wounded Englishmen, nearly forty in number, were taken care of; and none of them died, although some of them had ten or twelve wounds. The English surgeons also cured the wounded Spaniards, being more numerous, as the Spanish surgeons were unskilful.

Hawkins, who could not speak Spanish, had to use an interpreter, "or the Latin or French, with a little smattering I had of the Portugal"

Arrived at Panama, the success of the Spaniards was received with great joy, with bonfires and illuminations, and guns firing.

Don Beltran showed Hawkins a letter from the King, directed to the viceroy, giving a full account of his intended voyage, saying, "Hereby may you discern whether the King my master have friends in England, and good and speedy advice of all that passeth." Don Beltran then thought it convenient that letters should be dispatched to England, and Hawkins being unable to write, by his servant wrote letters to his father, Sir John Hawkins, acquainting him with what had happened.

And here Sir Richard ends his narrative with, "What succeeded to me,

[The Hawkins Family. 129]

and to the rest during our imprisonment, with the rarities, and particulars of the Peru and Terra Firme, my voyage to Spain, and the success, with the time I spent in prison in the Peru, in the Tercera, in Sevill, and in Madrid, with the accidents which befel me in them, I leave for a second part of this discourse, if God give me life and convenient place and rest, necessary for so tedious and troublesome a work: desiring God, that is Almighty, to give his blessing to this and the rest of my intentions: then shall my desires be accomplished, and I shall account myself most happy. To whom be all glory, and thanks, from all eternity."

There is also a Spanish account of the naval action between Richard Hawkins and Don Beltran de Castro, translated from the Life of the Marquis of Canete, Viceroy of Peru, by Dr. Suarez de Figueroa, in which he says that the fisherman brought the news of the whereabouts of Sir Richard in the Dainty, from whom he had taken a supply of fish, and then given him his liberty; and that during the action "the vessels came alongside each other, and were so close that the gallant Hawkins himself seized the royal standard of Spain by means of a bowline knot which he threw over it. But the attempt failed, as Diego de Avila, Juan Manrique, De Reinalte, Velasquez, and others came to the rescue, and defended it valorously. The Englishman paid for his audacity by two wounds, one in the neck and the other in the arm, both received from gunshots The prize was a ship of 400 tons, most beautiful in all her parts. She carried for arms [those of Hawkins] on the stern a negress with gilt ornaments. Filipon repaired her that night, lest she should go to the bottom, as she was badly damaged, for this purpose heaving her to. Ricardo was sent on board the Capitana with others of highest rank."

These accounts agree on all material points. Hawkins wrote from memory many years later; while De Figueroa, although not present at the scenes he describes, had the official documents of the Viceroy of Peru at his disposal.

The Marquis of Canete at once sent a report to the Spanish King, who replied as follows:

Philip II of Spain to the Marquis of Cande

I have felt much satisfaction on receiving the news of the success which de Castro obtained over the English general Ricardo who entered that sea by the strait of Magellan. As regards the punishment of the general and others who were captured in the said ship, you inform me that they have been claimed by the Inquisition, but that as you had no instructions from me as to their disposal, you have put off compliance with the requisition of the Holy Office, and the delivery of the said general to the "auto." You understand that he is a person of quality. In this matter I desire that justice may be done conformably to the quality of the persons. From Madrid 17 Dec. 1595.

[130 Plymouth Armada Heroes.]

Doubtless it was in consequence of this letter that Richard Hawkins finally escaped the Inquisition. With the other prisoners, he was taken to Payta, and thence to Lima, receiving at the hands of the Marquis of Canete, the Viceroy of Peru, the greatest kindness and consideration; and his servant, Saunders, says that "he was beloved for his valour by all brave men in those parts, and received by the best of the country, and carried by them to a princely house all richly hanged, the which he had to himself."

But within a few days of his arrival at Lima Hawkins was claimed by the Inquisition, which caused him much anxiety. The Viceroy, on the ground of having no instructions, did not fully comply with the request; but Richard Hawkins was taken to the "Holy House" by a Father, to remain until orders arrived from the King of Spain. Don Beltran de Castro's honour was thus compromised, as he had promised liberty before the English surrendered.

There are some interesting letters, of which Purchas gives extracts, one written by "Master John Ellis, one of the Captains with Sir Richard Hawkins, concerning the Strait of Magellan, and certain places on the coast and inland of Peru." Ellis went from Lima across the Andes to Guamanga and Cuzco; and was the first Englishman who ever visited the ancient capital of the Yncas, which he says was as "big as Bristol having a castle on a hill with stones of 20 tons weight strangely joined together without mortar."

The other two letters were written by T. Saunders, Hawkins's servant, addressed to Sir John Hawkins from the prison of San Lucar. He mentions Master Lucas, whom the Holy Office sent to the galleys at Nombre de Dios, where he died.

Richard Hawkins was sent to Spain in 1597. The galleon in which he sailed touched at Terceira, in the Azores, where she was chased by a fleet in command of the Earl of Essex, and several Spaniards killed and wounded by the English shot; but the galleon escaped, and arrived at Seville, where Sir Richard was thrown into prison, and dishonourably detained in captivity, De Castro protesting in vain.

In May, 1598, a letter to Cecil reported Richard Hawkins in the castle at San Lucar as a hostage for Spaniards in England,* and a second letter from Lisbon reported that he escaped out of the Castle of Seville in September, 1598, but was taken, thrust into a dungeon, and great store of irons put upon him. The next year he was enabled to send word to England by Deacon, his servant, who was passed over by De Marsenal from San Jean de Luz, and got on board an English ship in the port of

*Sta. Pa. Dom.

[The Hawkins Family. 131]

Conquet, August, 1599. In April, 1600, Richard Cook, another messenger, again brought news home of the prisoner.

There are extant some most pathetic and touching letters written by Hawkins from his prison to Queen Elizabeth, and also to the English Ambassador at Paris, asking for compassion in the name of his father's services, who sacrificed his life for his Queen. That he himself had spent fifteen years in her service without pay or recompense, knowing that she had infinite charges while he had a good estate; and that he was in danger of perpetual imprisonment unless her powerful hand was reached out, expressing deep concern for the welfare of his wife and child who were living at Plymouth, and conveying to the Queen and her Council all that he could glean of the intentions of Spain towards England. At the hazard of his life, in this way, if in no other, he was determined to serve his country.

In his letter to Sir Henry Nevill; the English Ambassador at Paris, he tells him "that he is the unfortunate son of Sir John Hawkins; that he fought for three days and nights, and was wounded in six places; that most of his men were killed and wounded, and that he surrendered when the ship was ready to sink. The Spanish general sent his glove as a pledge to give life and liberty, but he had been detained lest he should return and molest the Spaniards. Most of his people had been freed long ago." He entreated the Ambassador to intercede with the Queen for him. "I and my father," he concluded, "ever since we could bear arms, spent time and substance in her service."

There is a story told of how Richard Hawkins captivated the heart of a Spanish lady during his imprisonment, and how the circumstance of the lady's attachment and of his fidelity to his wife gave occasion to the well-known ballad of "The Spanish Lady's Love" in Percy's Reliques

- Would you know a Spanish lady,

How she wooed an Englishman?

The ballad is said to have been written by Hawkins, and it is also stated that the gold chain presented to him by the lady was carefully handed down as an heirloom in the family, and was lately in the possession of Mrs. Ilbert Prideaux.*

At last, after almost ten years' captivity, he was set free -his ransom being £12,000, a great sum in those days, £3000 of which had been left in his father's will for that purpose -and he returned to Engand in January, 1603. The credit of his release is due to the Count of Miranda, who declared that if a

* LYSONS' Devon.

[132 Plymouth Armada Heroes.]

prisoner was detained whose liberty had been promised, no future agreement could ever be made, because faith in Spanish honour would be destroyed.

It was a sad home-coming. The brave old father gone, the estates of both ruined, and long years of the prime of life utterly wasted." But in reward for his valour Richard Hawkins was knighted by King James I., and made Vice-Admiral of Devon and a Privy Counsellor.*

Sir Richard Hawkins to the Lords of the Council Commissioners for the peace.

1604 June 20.

RIGHTE honorable my singuler good Lordes, my dewtie most humblie remembred. The services of my deceased father, and my selfe to this Crowne are well knowen unto your honors, and our greate losses, hazardes, and expences, for which I never received anye paie or recompence neither would I sue for any yf I were able to live as my forefathers of my owne. But necessitie constrayning me I am bolde to appeale to yor Lordshippes in this occasion to crave a favor which I dare saie will stande with the honour of his Majestie, of this Kingdome, and yor Lordshippes, and the Kinge of Spayne in equitie and conscience cannot denie to be juste, and is that in the Capitulacion with Spaine the Spaniards maie yelde some recompence for the wronges done to me and my father in peace, in warre, and in this intermission of warre. In tyme of peace, by treacherie in Saint John de Luce the Kinge of Spaines vizroye, and Captayne generall tooke from my father above one hundred thousande poundes havinge given twelve gentlemen pledges of either parte, and was after borne in hande by the Kinge for the space of tenne yeres that he would make him restitution. In the tyme of the warr takinge me prisoner uppon composicion and the Kinges generalls word given to free me and all my companie presentlie, beinge helde prejudiciall for the Kinges service to accomplish with me, I was detayned almost tenne yeres a prisoner to the consuminge of all that I had, and losse of the greatest parte of my fathers estate, which coulde not be so little domaige to me as thirtie thousande poundes. Since the comminge of th'embassador into Englande, I was a partener with Sir Thomas Midleton and others - in a voyage into the west Indies in a shipp and a pynnas which went for trade, and beinge admitted to trade with the securitie of two pledges sent by the Lieutenant generall of the Island of Santo Domingo sendinge our pynnas to the porte with fifteene hundred poundes worth of goodes (our people beinge busie in their trade suddenlie were murthered) by those which came to buye and sell with them, and our pynnas and goodes surprised, which was cause of above three thousande poundes losse unto us, for that our voyage was deane overthrowen. I desire not to drawe by suite anie thinge from my dreade


* Knights Bachelors made by King James - Richard Hawkins Ju]y 23 1603, at Whitehall. Harl. MSS.

[The Hawkins Family. 133]

sovereign, but my humble peticion to your Lordshipps is that you would be pleased to mediate with his Majestie: that either a clause of satisfaccion from the Kinge of Spayne unto me maye be inserted in the Articles of peace, or that I maie not be concluded by them but lefte free to seeke my remedie, accordinge as the lawe of god and natyons alloweth, And I shalbe ever bounde to praie almightie god to preserve your Lordshipps ever for himselfe and Englands good.

Your Lordshipps ever most humbly bounde,n


From Plimouth the 20th of June 1604.

Sir Richard took a warm interest in corporate affairs, and the estimation in which he was held in Plymouth is shown by the fact that he was chosen Mayor at the first opportunity after his return (1603-4). "Sir, Richard came home but the year before from the South Seas, where he had been a prisoner by the Spaniards eight or nine years."' The following year (1604) he was elected senior representative of the town in Parliament, with Sir James Bagge. Subsequently we find him and Sir James Bagge mulcted in 3s. 4d. each for being late at mayor choosing, coming "tarde on St. Lambert's daye."

In 1604 one Walter Matthews was Mayor of Plymouth, and an amusing incident is reported to have taken place; for "this Matthews was servant unto Sir Richard, as was his wife unto the Lady Hawkins, who disdaining to sit below one that had been her maid endeavoured to keep the upper hand which the other attempting, the Lady struck her a box on the ear. It made a great disturbance at the time, but at length it was composed, and Sir Richard gave the town a house somewhere in Market Street for satisfaction."

Sir Richard purchased, the house and manor of Poole and Slapton from the Amerideths. It is situated between Dartmouth and the Start Point The residence, surrounded with many fine trees, was about three-quarters of a mile from the church; but the ruins of the old mansion were pulled down about 1880, and the site is now occupied by a modern farm-house.

No doubt Sir Richard found Slapton a convenient centre for the discharge of his duties as Vice-Admiral of Devon, in the exercise of which he was, however, constantly at his house in Plymouth, where most of his children were born. In March, 1605, we find him sequestering a Spanish prize, which was driven into Salcombe Bay. In June, 1608, he had some correspondence with the Earl of Nottingham respecting some pirates, so discussing a question of Admiralty jurisdiction; and in the following September mention is made of his active prosecution of pirates.

In March, 1614, there was a project for a new voyage of discovery, to send a ship to the Solomon Islands, and that Sir Richard Hawkins should have the command, as he was held to be of "courage, art, and knowledge," to attempt such enterprise. In a letter written by him he refers to a discovery he fortierly made, and to his desire to undertake another voyage to the Straits in person; and offers to adventure £20,000 for a voyage to the South Sea. This idea was not carried out, but it serves to show that Sir Richard was still as keen as ever for discovery.

In July, 1620, he was put in command of the Vanguard; as Vice-Admiral of twenty ships under Admiral Sir Robert Mansell, to suppress Algerine pirates; and in October a special commission was issued to Hawkins to be Admiral in case of Mansell's death. But in 1622 (April 17th) the Lord Chamberlain wrote to Sir Dudley Carlton that "Sir Robert Mansell and his crew are ill-paid, and Sir Richard Hawkins, the Vice-Admiral, has died of vexation." "He was seized with a fit, when actually in the chamber of the Privy Council on business connected with his command." Westcote, in his View of Devon, noting this lamentable occurrence, says very justly of this officer and his father, "that if Fortune had been as propitious to them both, as they were eminent for virtue, valour, and knowledge, they might have vied with the heroes of any age."

[136 Plymouth Armada Heroes.]

Sir Richard Hawkins was the sixth captain who sailed round the world, and for his skill he obtained the name of the "Complete Seaman. He was the author of an interesting account of his voyage into the South Sea (already largely quoted), which was being published at the time of his sudden death, in 1622, by John Haggard; it was afterwards reprinted in "Purchas," and again, from the original, by the Hakluyt Society. Sir Richard intended writing an account of his long imprisonment, and of Peru, Tierra Firme, Terceira, and Spain, had he lived, as a second part of his Observations. "Death prevented the accomplishment of this intention, and the loss of the promised second part is a serious and irreparable loss to history. For we possess no account of Peru during that period written by an observant foreigner."

Lady Judith survived her husband, dying on 30th May, 1629; and was buried in Slapton Church. On a slate-stone slab over the vault, near the screen,

[The Hawkins Family. 137]

on the floor by the Poole pew, to the right of the altar, is the following in- scription:

"lyeth the body of Lady Judith Hawkins wife unto Sir Richard 1629"

The rest is obliterated.

Village tradition still tells of how Lady Judith Hawkins walked from the old house of Poole to church -a distance of nearly a mile -on a red velvet carpet, which a servant unrolled before her.

There is only one portrait of Sir Richard Hawkins known to be in existence. It was formerly in the possession of the Lords North, at Kirtling in Cambridgeshire; and on the dismantling of the house, in 1802, it was sold. In 1824 it came into the hands of Mr. Bryant, whose brother sold it, in 1866, to R. S. Hawkins, Esq., of 18, Norham Gardens, Oxford, but at present living in New Zealand, whither he removed the picture. It is a portrait on panel, kitcat size, of a man in armour, with small head, dark brown hair and yellowish beard1 and the hand resting on a helmet. The face bears a strong resemblance to that of the ivory basso-relievo bust of Sir John Hawkins. Above the shoulder of the figure are reeds, a rock, and waves, and the following motto: "Undis arundo vires reparat caedensque foventur fienditus at rupes en scopulosa ruit."

Will of Sir Richard Hawkins

IN the name of God Amen the 16th day of April 1622 in the twentieth yeare of the raigne of our Sorraigne Lord James by the Grace of God Kinge of England Fraunce and Ireland Defender of the Faith and of Scotland the fyve and fyftith I Sir Richard Hawkins of Slapton in the Countye of Devon Knight beinge sicke and weake in bodye but of pfect mynde and memory blessed be God therefore doe hereby make ordayne and declare this to be my last wrn and Testament in manner and forme followinge. First and principalle I commend my soule unto Almightie God my Maker Redeemer and Sanctifier hoping and beleeving assuredly that through the only merritts death and resurrection of Jesus Christ I shall obtayne full and free remission and pardon of all my sinnes and be made ptaker of eternall life and happiness in the kingdome of heaven with God's elect for ever. And I comitt my body to the earthe from whence it came and after my bodye buried my will and minde is that all suche debts as I shall owe to any p'son or p'sons at the tyme of my decease be first well and trulie satisfied

And touching the orderinge and disposinge of all such lands grounds tenements goods and chattells as it hathe pleased Almightie God to blesse mee with in this life I give and bequeathe the same in manner and forme following Item I give unto Judith my well beloved wife (for and duringe the terme of her natural life) all that my Mannor or Lordshipp of Poole in the Parishe of Slapton in the County of Devon with all mills lands grounds messuages cottages tenements and hereditaments with their and every of their appurtennes to the said Mannor or Lordshipp of Poole now belonging or in any wise app'teyninge And likewise I give and bequeath unto the said Judith my wife (for and duringe the tearme of her naturall life) all other my lands and tenements cottages and hereditaments with the appertennes situate lyeinge and being in or about Plymouth in the Countye of Devon Neverthelesse and uppon this condition followeinge tbat she shall yearelye duringe soe longe tyme as my sonne John Hawkins shall remaine and dwell with his said mother allowe and paie unto my said sonne twentie pounds per annum of lawfull money of England And if it shall happen that he shall hereafter be minded to lyve from her and betake himself to some other place of aboade or otherwise to travaile or to betake himself to lyve either at the Innes of Courte or at the universities of Oxford or Cambridge then to paie unto my said sonne John and his assignes during all such time as hee shall live from her as aforesaid the yearlie some of fortie pounds of lawfull money of England at fower of the most usual feests or termes in the yeare by even and equall por'cons Item I give and bequeath ymediatlie from and after the decease of my said wife Judith all the said Mannor howse

[140 Plymouth Armada Heroes.]

or Lordship called Poole with all mills lands grounds messuages cottages tenements and hereditaments with the ire and every of theire appurten'ces in the Parish of Slapton and all other my said lands tenements cottages and hereditaments with th'app'tences lyeinge and being in or about Plymouth in the County of Devon af~resaid with the reverc'on and rever'cons thereof unto my said sonne John Hawkins with all and singular my goods chattells utensils and household stuffe whatsoever Provided always that my said wife may have and enjoy use occupie and possesse the same goods and chattells 'during her life without any interup'con or lett of my said sonne John or of any others by his pcurement Item I give and bequeathe to my sonne Richard Hawkins and to his heires for ever all that messuage or tenement with th'app'tences called Pryvitt scituate lyeinge and being in Alverstoke in the Countye of Southt with all lands and grounds thereunto belonginge or in any wise apperteyninge

Item I give and bequeathe to Margaret Hawkins my daughter (over and above a hundred pounds legacie given her by her grandmother and a jewell of twentye pound value) the some of one hundred pounds of lawfull money of England Item I give and bequeathe to my daughter Joane Hawkins one hundred and twenty pounds and to my youngest daughter Mary the like some of one hundred and twentye pounds All which said three severall legacies of somes of money by me given unto my said three daughters as afforesaide I will shal be paid them at sixteene yeares of age or daye of marriage which shall first happen and to be receaved and had out of my owne entertaynmt due to me from the King's Ma'tie for my last service and imployment don by me at Argeire And if any of my said daughters shall happen to decease or dep'te this transitorie lyfe before they shall happen to come or attayne to their severall ages of sixteene yeares or daye of marriage as aforesaid then I will that the parte and porc'on of any of them so dyeinge or deceasinge as aforesaide shall remayne and come unto the others surviving and overlyving p'te and p'te alike by even and equall por'cons also for the further advancement and encrease of my said daughters porcons as aforesaide I doe equallie give to amongst my said daughters the some of one hundred and fiftie pounds due to me by Sir Henry Thynn Knight to be paid them when and so soone as my Executrix hereafter named shall happen to recover and receave the same And I make and ordayne the said Judith my lovinge wife sole and only Executrix of this my last Will and Testament and I renounce and revoke all former Wills by me formerly made In witness whereof I the said Sir Richard Hawkins have here- unto sett my hand and seale the said sixteenth day of Aprill 1622 in the twentieth yeare of the raigne of our said Soveraigne Lord King James over England France and Ireland RICHARD HAWKINS Sealed and delyvered in the presence of us Thos Button Jo Gifford Josias Shute and Robert Holyland Sr

Proved June 13th 1622, by Dame Judith Hawkins.

[The Hawkins Family. 141]


Will of Lady Judith Hawkins

May 27.1629.

IN the name of God Amen. I Judith Hawkins sicke of body but sound and perfect of mynde and memorie, doe ordaine and make this my last will and testament in manner and forme followinge. first my Soule which is heavenly redeemed through the sufferings of Christ I commend into the hands of God. for my bodie which is dust and ashes I commend to Christian buriall. Item I give unto my daughter Joane my two leases of Plimouth after two yeares, after my decease and in the meane while ten poundes a yeare for her maintenance, for the land (whereas my son John is at sea) if it please God he doe not returne home with life, it is my will that it should remaine unto my sonne Richard. Item I give unto my daughter Mary one hundred poundes to be paid her on her marriage daie, and ten poundes a yeare for her maintenance in the meane while Item I give unto my daughter Margarett one gold ring. Item I give unto my son Richard one gold ringe. Item I give unto my brother Lewes Heale twentie shillinges. Item I give unto Mr John Cowte twentie shillinges. Item I give to the poor of Slopton [Slapton] ten shillinges to bee distributed at the discretion of Mr Cowte, and some one or two of the Overseers of the poor of the same parish of Slopton. For all the rest of my goods not given and bequeathed I give unto my sonne John whom I doe make my sole Executor. Provided allwaies that if my son John refuse to bee my Executor it shalbe lawfull for my brother Lewes Heale and my brother Nicholas Heale and my brother Nicholas Gilbert, whom I doe appoint my Overseers to sell any or all my goods and Chattells for payment of my debts and legacies, and then what remaines I doe give unto my two daughters Joane and Mary. In witnes whereof I have hereunto sett my hand the daie and yeare first written. JUDETH HAWKINS in the presence of Joh. Cowt. Sign William Bastard.

Proved at London 5th day of February 1629 by John Hawkins. [14 Scroope]

[Book converted for the Web © Paul Welbank, 1997]